A new venture: Zenda Farms Preserve

WATERTOWN DAILY TIMES FILE PHOTO
Thousand Islands Land Trust’s Zenda Farm Preserve.

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The Dairy Debate: When and how will the industry change?

DAYTONA NILES / NNY BUSINESS
A few Dairy cows drink some water off of W. Martinsburg Road in Lowville.

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Artificial Farming Intelligence: Agbotic utilizes robotic tech to grow food

AMANDA MORRISON / NNY BUISINESS
Darren Strock checks hoses and nozzles on an automated watering machine at Agbotics.

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Power Lines Can Inhibit Farm Production

Jay Matteson

Imagine you are a farmer. It is the beginning of spring and you are excited to head out to the fields to start preparing ground and planting your crops.  You’ve had a tough go of it for the last couple years because the price you get paid for your milk has been lower than what it costs you to make the milk.  You’ve lost a lot of equity in the farm and had to borrow money to cover operating costs. But it is spring time and with spring comes renewed optimism in the growing season and what lies ahead for your business. 

    The farmer arrives at one of his fields to find new cable lines installed on existing utility poles that are on a right of way given decades ago.  The new cable lines go directly across the middle of the field and are barely 12 feet off the ground.  The tractor you are sitting in needs 15 feet of clearance to pass under the utility lines.  This is not a good way to start the season after the previous bad year. What does the farmer do? 

    Some might say farm around the utility line.  If the farmer can find a way to get his equipment to the opposite side of the field, the farmer could plant as close to the right of way as possible.  Previously the farm was able to plant underneath the existing lines. The only production lost was the footprint of the utility poles. Now, because the farmer cannot plant underneath the utility lines, the farm loses several acres of crop land. If the farmer paid $3,000 an acre when he or she bought the land, the economic loss to the farm quickly builds. In addition, the farm has lost feed production for livestock, that will need to be made up elsewhere.  With large modern farming equipment, it’s not easy to change the cropping pattern to maximize a smaller field.  This decreases potential production. The economic impact of the low utility lines quickly builds into the tens of thousands of dollars.

    The National Electric Safety Code (NESC) prescribes minimum requirements for clearances between overhead utility facilities and land traversed by vehicles. NESC Rule 232 covers the vertical clearances of wires, conductors, cables and equipment above the ground, roadway, rail, or water surfaces. Rule 232 indicates the minimum clearance for communication lines on utility poles, usually the lowest of all lines on poles, is 15 feet, 5 inches.  This distance is measured at the lowest point of the line “sag” to the surface below, such as a farm field.

    Rule 232 indicates that if facilities are out of compliance with current NESC standards, the applicable utility shall be responsible for rectifying the situation. If the facilities are shown to follow the standards, but the farmer desires the line to be elevated to allow for access or equipment operation, the farmer is responsible for paying the cost of the work to elevate the line.

    If utility lines are encountered that are in the way of equipment, farmers should never attempt to touch or move the line. The line should always be considered “live” and dangerous. Farmers are advised to contact the appropriate utility company. If the farm is not successful in determining the name of the company, then they should contact the local electric company.   In the event the issue is not being resolved satisfactorily, then contact the New York State Department of Public Service at 1-800-342-3377.

                Our office is currently working with a local utility company to rectify problems with new utility line installation.  The company has indicated a strong willingness to work with our farms and that is very appreciated. If any farmer has questions, please call our office at 315-782-5865.

An Agricultural Outlook for 2018

ALYSSA COUSE

Intense anticipation for the next farm bill stems from the pressure that farmers are under due to the “kick me while I’m down” status the industry has experienced the last few years.  Low commodity prices, unpredictable weather, diminishing markets, raise in minimum wage, and just plain getting older to name a few.  While some have adapted to survive the times, others have had no choice but to sell out.  Martin Luther King, Jr., who we honor on the 15th day of this month, said “The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.” 

                With the drought of summer 2016 leaving farms with minimal options other than to pay to drill more wells, pay for water to be trucked in, and pay for their feed commodities to be sourced in because they were unable to grow a sufficient crop on their own land, wallets were also sucked dry. Coming into the fourth year of low milk and commodity prices, farms could have used a bumper crop year in 2017 to help compensate, but instead fields were flooded by rain.  Planting and harvest was less than desirable and sometimes impossible. To learn more about making the best out of your core acres and feeding the right crop versus the best crop during tough years (among other great dairy related topics), see Joe Lawrence/Ron Kuck speak at Dairy Day Jan. 23 at Ramada Inn in Watertown. To register, call CCE Jefferson at 315-788-8450 or email me at amc557@cornell.edu

                In challenging times it is common to feel like you are alone in your struggles; this is not the case.  Financial and emotional counseling is available to help you make the best decisions for the farm and your family.  Such services are available through local organizations like Cornell Cooperative Extension, NY FarmNet, SCORE, Farm Credit, and USDA Farm Service Agency.  

How the Government could help: Farm Bill and Tax Reform

      The first farm bill was in 1933 as a response to major hardships resulting from events such as The Great Depression and Dust Bowl and they continued sporadically in the decades to come.  It was not until the 1970’s that the farm bill was taken up by Congress on a set, four–year schedule.  The latest is available for download on the USDA’s website if you’d like 357 pages worth of light reading.  The farm bill has been described with analogies like a two–engine freight train or a Swiss army knife with many tools available for use in a pocket–sized gadget.  Though these objects are drastically different, they both indicate that the farm bill is multifaceted.  It contains 12 titles and while content remains fairly constant, titles can vary from farm bill to farm bill: Title I: Commodities, Title II: Conservation, Title III: Trade, Title IV: Nutrition, Title V: Credit, Title VI: Rural Development, Title VII: Research and Extension, Title VIII: Forestry, Title IX: Energy, Title X: Horticulture, Title XI: Crop Insurance, and Title XII: Miscellaneous. Unbeknownst to most, 80 percent of the funds go to nutrition programs.

                Budget reconciliation, which allows for reconsideration of certain tax, spending and debt limitations, is important to mention in the context of the 2018 bill due to the fact that House and Senate Republican leaders have announced their intention to use this tactic at least twice throughout 2017.  Dairy, crop insurance, and commodities are among the areas stated to be in need of substantial reform.  For example, the Margin Protection Program that was created for dairy in the 2014 Farm Bill has left many dairy producers severely dissatisfied.  Many farms grow their own crops to feed their animals so improvements to these programs could have a positive impact on multiple aspects of their farm business. Several states would like disaster assistance to farmers facing droughts and other extreme weather events. Although Northern New York doesn’t have to deal with enormous wildfires or relentless hurricanes like other areas of the country, there is no doubt that drought and excessive precipitation has taken a significant toll on our local agricultural industry over the recent years. 

                In addition to the potential changes brought about by Farm Bill 2018, the new tax reform recently passed in late December could provide some relief for farmers.  A few ways the new tax bill could benefit farmers include repeal of estate tax, full expensing of certain capital investments, and lowering of tax rates on pass-through businesses, which comprises 94 percent of farms (heritage.org).  In last year’s economic outlook from Jay Matteson, an underlying message was one of hope. It seems that this sense of hope for the future has only intensified looking towards 2018.

Alyssa Couse is an agricultural outreach educator for Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County. Born and raised in the north country, she feels at home working with Jefferson County residents, both two-legged and four -legged.  Contact her at amc557@cornell.edu.

Finding Your Food: Regional food hubs connect consumer with food

CHRISTOPHER LENNEY / NNY BUSINESS
Peter Martins displays a handful of strawberries at Martin farm on Needam Road in Potsdam.

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Economics and agriculture in the future

Jay Matteson

I couldn’t find a fortune teller with a crystal ball so I called two people who have a good grasp on what expectations are in the dairy industry for the coming year. They are members of the informal cadre of people I turn to for guidance on what is happening in agriculture. Ron Robbins is an owner of North Harbor Dairy Farm near Sackets Harbor, a 1,000-cow dairy operation. Ron’s family owns Old McDonald’s Farm, an agricultural educational and entertainment destination.  Ron has served on a variety of state, regional and national organizations and was the state executive director of USDA Farm Service Agency for New York for a number of years.

                Bruce Krupke is the executive vice president of Northeast Dairy Foods Association based in Syracuse, serving dairy processors across eight states in the northeastern United States. Bruce also serves on many state regional and national committees. Both Bruce and Ron do a good job of keeping their finger on the pulse of the dairy industry.

                Dairy farmers have been suffering through very difficult times for the past two years.  The price they are paid for their milk, measured in units of one hundred pounds of milk shipped, or hundredweights (cwt), has been well below the cost of production.  The average cost of production in Northern New York tends to run at $18 per hundredweight or one hundred pounds of milk shipped. Prices have dipped as low as $14 per hundredweight over the last two years.  At $14, if the price stayed that low the entire year, a 500-cow dairy with each cow producing an average of 90 pounds of milk per day per cow would lose approximately $657,000 for the year. That is a significant loss.

                Mr. Robbins indicates that it is looking like prices will remain below cost of production until halfway through 2017.  Why? According to Ron there is a tremendous supply of milk and milk products on the market.  Even though demand is strong for dairy products, the low milk prices over the last two years allowed manufacturers to build a tremendous inventory of products that now has to work its way out of the system. Ron indicates that even though U.S. production continues to be “on a tear” with cow numbers increasing and production per cow moving higher, world production is coming down.  That could be very beneficial to U.S. dairy prices paid to the farmer.  Mr. Robbins believes the last six months of 2017 will hopefully see farm gate prices finally cross the profitable threshold.  Unfortunately, it will take many months for farms to recoup the losses they’ve incurred through this low price cycle.

                Bruce Krupke indicates a similar trend, anticipating prices to gradually rise into 2017.  Mr. Krupke heavily emphasized the importance of the world market for U.S. products. “This is where our future lies” Mr. Krupke said.  World dairy prices are rising enough to bring parity with U.S. dairy prices allowing our industry to become competitive. Bruce indicated that we would benefit most if we could achieve a good dairy trade situation with our neighbor to our north. Canada is putting heavy tariffs on ultra-filtered milk products that are hurting two dairy plants in New York, one in Batavia and one in Cayuga County. Bruce indicates concern that the situation will “back up” milk supply in the state.

                I also asked both gentlemen about expectations for the impacts of the Trump administration on agriculture.  Mr. Robbins said right now there is mixed expectations about President Trump.  President Trump’s pro-business tendencies are welcomed in agriculture. The last several years of intense regulatory burden, rapidly increasing cost of business due to federal policies and heavily increasing tax burdens are expected to ease and that will be very welcome. Ron said there is a nervous anticipation within the industry at the same time.  Agriculture, including the dairy industry, is heavily impacted by foreign trade.  There is concern about the unknowns of the new president’s trade policies.  Much work is being done behind the scenes to help the administration better appreciate the importance of trade to agriculture and our farms.

                Bruce Krupke shared a very positive outlook for the business policies of President Trump.  Mr. Krupke indicated he believes that the administration will be very business friendly and that should generate a positive outlook for dairy manufacturers. Bruce hopes that the president will improve our dairy trade opportunities with Canada which will especially benefit New York’s dairy industry.

                Let’s hope that the expectations of both men are correct. Our dairy farmers need a light at the end of the tunnel.  Prices have been too low for too long.   If we can improve the business climate for our farms and manufacturers, the dairy industry can thrive.  Should our business climate improve, perhaps more dairy or food manufacturing opportunities will come along.

Opportunities for NY hemp production

Jay Matteson

Jay Matteson

Last June, the state Legislature passed legislation that allows for the transportation, processing, sale and distribution of hemp grown as part of New York’s research pilot program.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo signed the legislation into law, kicking off an opportunity for universities and colleges to partner with farms to establish research trials and businesses to produce industrial hemp. This action became permitted through the 2014 U.S. Farm Bill.

So what exactly is hemp?

According to the website hempbasics.com, hemp is primarily cannabis sativa, a species of the plant cannabis that grows wild throughout all 50 states. Cannabis sativa is grown for industrial use and has no drug properties because of its low THC, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, content. Cannabis indica is the species of cannabis commonly known as marijuana and has enough THC content to produce a psychoactive response.

Hemp was grown by Presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson and was a major American crop from 1776 to 1937. The plant is used in the production of fiber, which has antimicrobial properties. The fiber can then be made into twine and cordage, yarn, rope and webbing. It is reported that a single acre of hemp will produce as much fiber as two to three acres of cotton. Hemp fiber is stronger and lasts longer than cotton fiber.

Paper products may also be produced from hemp fiber, from tissue paper to cardboard. It takes two to four acres of trees to produce as much paper as an acre of hemp. Many websites reported that hemp can be used to produce fiberboard that is as strong as wood.

Trees take many years to grow before they can be used for wood or fiber production. Hemp requires 120 days to grow before it is ready to harvest. A substance similar to cement can be made from the silica that is leached from the soil, combined with unslaked lime. This material is waterproof and fireproof.

Hemp seed oil provides essential fatty acids, lanolin and linolenic acids. You can purchase food items such as smoothies and have hemp seed oil added to enhance the nutritional benefit of the smoothie. Hemp oil is also being used in the production of body care products. The protein produced from hemp seed has the potential to produce tofu, veggie burgers and salad oils and can be ground into flour.

Hemp has potential for biomass production. Researchers are looking at hemp for biofuel production as 70 percent of the plant is the “hurd” or woody core of the plant. The oil from hemp may be used in biodiesel production.

With so many good uses of hemp, why is it not grown commercially across the United States?

Because it is difficult to visually distinguish between the different species of cannabis, prohibitions were put in place to prevent the growth of any cannabis species legally. Even though THC levels are extremely low in hemp, there was concern that it might be possible to extract THC from the plant. Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany have allowed hemp farming and commercial production.

The Germans use hemp fiber in composite automotive panels. Other countries are looking at hemp derivatives as a replacement for petroleum-based chemicals. Slowly, we are seeing the easing of regulations against growing hemp in the U.S., allowing this historically valuable plant to come into production again.

It appears there is a future for hemp production in the United States. There is reportedly a bill working through the state Legislature to allow full commercialization of hemp production.

The challenge will be to enforce laws that prohibit growing marijuana while allowing growth of hemp.

 

Agri-Business: Farm-based beverage sector grows

Within the past decade, Jefferson County and Northern New York witnessed a refreshing emergence of new businesses making beverages and growing ingredients from agricultural products. Our region is well known for producing large amounts of high-quality milk and turning that milk into award-winning cheeses and cultured dairy products. Our dairy industry will continue to thrive and grow for the foreseeable future. But the emergence of other opportunities in agriculture has invigorated local entrepreneurs not interested in dairy farming. The question is, what can our region support? [Read more…]

Bumper corn harvest expected if farmers avoid killer frost

Corn tassels wave in the wind on Maxon Road near Watertown. Farms could yield 25 tons per acre. Justin Sorensen / Watertown Daily Times

The corn harvest is expected to be abundant for farmers, but some could be scrambling to avoid a late-season killer frost.

Because crops were planted later than usual in May, most farmers in the north country are running about two weeks behind schedule and waiting for corn to finish growing or dry, said Michael E. Hunter, field crops expert for Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County. Some farmers started harvesting corn last week, he said. Those who didn’t are expected to start before the end of the month.

Because of the threat posed by freezing weather, some farmers might decide to start harvesting corn before it’s fully mature, Mr. Hunter said. On the night of Sept. 18, temperatures in Jefferson and Lewis counties dropped into the range of 27 to 35 degrees. When temperatures drop to 28 degrees or lower, corn and soybeans are in peril.

Some cornfields were unscathed by the frost, Mr. Hunter said. But the outcome was worse for other cornfields, which have drooping cornstalks with dead leaves and low moisture content.

“They can withstand 30 degrees for a few hours,” he said. “But if you get to 28 degrees or below, it doesn’t take long to fully kill” crops.

Cornstalks that appear to be dead can be deceiving, however, because they often retain a lot of moisture after cold spells, Mr. Hunter said. Leaves of the cornstalk are only about 10 to 15 percent of the total weight of harvested silage. That’s why it’s important for farmers to test the moisture of corn to make sure they aren’t chopping it too early, he said.

“We still have a lot of moisture in the corn and ear, and it’s going to be wetter than people thought,” Mr. Hunter said. “You don’t want to harvest wet, because you can lose nutrients.”

Dairy farmer Lyle J. Wood of Cape Vincent said he got a jump-start by harvesting 200 acres of corn last week. Mr. Wood, who co-owns a 1,150-cow operation on County Route 9 with Scott F. Bourcy, said that 2,000 acres of corn and 700 of soybeans planted in the spring weren’t affected by last week’s cold weather. [Read more…]