Breaking Biases


It can often be difficult for individuals with criminal convictions to find employment or housing, even years after serving their sentence. Even with protections in place, some employers and landlords can’t fight an unconscious bias towards these individuals. Local attorney Matthew Porter has begun using a new law passed in October of last year to protect his clients from such bias.

    New York State does not have any laws in place to erase, or expunge, criminal records. Instead, New York offers a processes for sealing certain criminal records. For an individual experiencing additional hardship due to an old conviction, applying to have their records sealed may be an attractive option.

     “When a person’s record is sealed it is not erased, but any related fingerprints, booking photos, and DNA samples may be returned to the individual or destroyed, and records of their crime will no longer be available to the public,” explained Mr. Porter.

    Under New York’s Executive Law Section 296(16), employers are prohibited from inquiring about or taking any discriminatory action based on an individual’s sealed record. This means that if a record is sealed it cannot be considered in an application for employment.

    “However,” said Mr. Porter, “this law does not apply to law enforcement agencies, nor to those charged with federal licensing for firearms or other deadly weapons.”

    The two processes for having criminal records sealed are outlined in New York’s Criminal Procedure Law Sections 160.58 and 160.59. Section 160.59, effective October 2017, has created a new opportunity for individuals who have not been convicted of a crime in the past ten years to apply to have their criminal convictions sealed.

    Due to the individual nature of applying this new law, Mr. Porter is unable to state that any conviction will be automatically sealed. However, he was able to provide certain requirements a person must meet in order to apply to have a conviction sealed under the new law, primarily including but not limited to:

  • The individual may have up to two convictions, including only one felony conviction;
  • To be considered an “eligible offense” the conviction(s) must not have been for any of the following:

    ◦ sex offenses,

    ◦ other crimes requiring sex offender registration,

    ◦ Class A felonies (including but not limited to the following non-violent felonies: aggravated enterprise corruption, criminal possession or sale of a controlled substance in the first or second degree, operating as a major trafficker or conspiracy in the first degree)

    ◦ violent felonies, and

    ◦ attempts to commit any ineligible offenses under the categories listed above;

  • It must have been at least ten years since either

    ◦ the date the sentence was imposed, or

    ◦ the date of release from the individual’s last period of incarceration; and

  • The individual must not have been convicted of any new crimes during the ten-year waiting period.

    Once the application is filed, the local district attorney’s office has forty-five (45) days to notify the court whether they will oppose sealing the record. Then a judge must consider a number of factors in determining whether to grant a sealing application, including:

  • the amount of time since the individual’s last conviction,
  • the circumstances of the offense the individual seeks to have sealed,
  • any other convictions,
  • the individual’s character,
  • statements by any victims of the offense,
  • the impact sealing will have on the individual’s reintegration into society, and
  • the impact sealing will have on the public.

    Any experienced criminal attorney can help individuals determine whether they are eligible for sealing and to guide them through the sealing application process. The attorneys at Conboy, McKay, Bachman & Kendall, LLP, with offices in Jefferson County and St. Lawrence County, understand this new law and have begun aiding clients in having their criminal records sealed.

AMANDA COLTON is from Ogdensburg. In 2016, Amanda received her J.D. from Hofstra University and she is currently pending admission to the bar. Once admitted, Amanda will be practicing in the areas of domestic relations and criminal law.

Legal Duties and Responsibilities of Directors & Officers

Megan Kendall

An individual must fully understand the duties and responsibilities that accompany being a director and/or an officer of a nonprofit organization. Directors and officers have fiduciary responsibilities to steer the organization towards a sustainable future, to adopt policies that are sound, ethical and legal, and to ensure the organization complies with the required laws and regulations. The directors and officers are responsible to ensure that the nonprofit has adequate resources to advance its mission.

    Directors and officers are held to the standard that they will act in good faith, and will use the degree of diligence, care and skill which a prudent person would use in their similar position and under similar circumstances. Directors and officers are expected to comply with the three fundamental areas of legal and fiduciary responsibilities, including the duty of care, duty of loyalty and the duty of obedience. 

Duty of Care

    The directors and officers are required to participate in the governance and oversight of the organization’s activities.  Directors and officers are required to specifically uphold the following duty of care requirements: 

1.) To attend board and committee meetings regularly;

2.) To review and understand the financial documents and reports;

3.) To help develop a strategic plan that identifies and helps to manage risk;

4.) To take all necessary steps to advance the organization’s mission goals;

5.) To take reasonable steps to ensure the organization is compliant with all of the applicable laws and regulations;

6.) To read the minutes and reports from prior meetings, including meetings that were missed;

7.) To approve the process for fundraising, professional fees, compensation and construction contracts;

8.) To ensure the board minutes reflect any dissenting votes or actions that are taken;

9.) To read all of the literature on the organization’s programs;

10.) To make sure that monthly financial statements are available, that they are clear, and communicate the proper information;

11.) To ensure that all policies are written, safeguarded and are used to protect the organization’s assets. The polices must be updated regularly;

12.) To ensure background checks are done on employees;

13.) To determine the amount and level of director and officer liability coverage;

14.) To encourage diversity within the board members; and

15.) To be involved in the selection and review of the chief executive officer and any other key employees involved in the day-to-day operations of the organization.

Duty of Loyalty

    The Duty of Loyalty requires officers and directors to act in the best interest of the organization at all times. Directors and officers need to ensure that all potential conflicts of interest are identified and disclosed prior to joining the board. New York State specifically requires that all nonprofits have a written conflict of interest policy. The policy must be re-signed each and every year by the directors and officers. Specifically, directors and officers must:

1.) Be able to identify circumstances that render conflicts of interest;

2.) Be involved in setting forth procedures to disclose conflicts of interest;

3.) Prohibit other individuals from being present during or participating in deliberation, voting on the issue, or influencing the vote on the issues that directly involves the conflict of interest; and

4.) Ensure the organization documents and resolves each conflict;

Duty of Obedience

    The Duty of Obedience requires that directors and officers work to ensure that the organization complies with all applicable laws and regulation, ensure that the organization complies with its own policies and ensure that the organization is carrying out its mission.  Directors and officers have a duty to ensure that the organization is complying with the requirements to maintain their tax-exempt status by filing the appropriate forms with the IRS and the attorney general.  

    Before joining the board, make sure you complete your due diligence. You should research the expectations of board members, governance responsibilities, the time commitment, the regularity of board and committee meetings, fundraising obligations, the current board of directors, the leadership style of the board, the number of employees, and the organization’s policies. In addition, you should verify that there are no pending regulatory investigations or any other pending investigations. You must review the organization’s by-laws and verify that the organization has directors’ and officers’ liability insurance coverage.

Joining a nonprofit board can be an extremely rewarding experience.  Now that you have the knowledge to make an informed decision, go join a nonprofit board!


Megan Kendall is an associate attorney at Conboy, McKay, Bachman & Kendall LLP, and practices in areas of estate planning, real estate, and business law. She is a member of Clayton Lions Club, Clayton Improvement Association, Herring College Trust, T.I. Community Foundation, Association of the Blind and Clayton Opera House. Contact her at 315-788-5100

October 2015: Business Law

Final steps in the eviction process

Larry Covell

Larry Covell

This is the third in a three-part series concerning landlord-tenant evictions. My last column covered the proper methods of service of appropriate court papers on the tenant. It is a complicated procedure because in some circumstances, the landlord must give the tenant a predicate notice while in other situations, it is not. [Read more…]

August 2015: Business Law

Know options for eviction petition

Columnist Larry Covell

Columnist Larry Covell

This is a second column in a three-part series concerning landlord-tenant evictions from the perspective of the landlord or small business owner. In the last column, I discussed the types of actions, non-payment and holdover proceedings, the required notices and methods in which the notices can be served on the tenant. The next step in most evictions proceedings is the “notice of petition” and the “petition.” Each legal document must contain certain information about the summary proceeding or the action will be dismissed as defective. [Read more…]

June 2015: Business Law

Small business law for landlords

Columnist Larry Covell

Columnist Larry Covell

One type of small business owner is a landlord who may have one or more residential units for rent. If a landlord has been in the residential rental business for any length of time, he or she will have had the unpleasant task of evicting a tenant. Evictions are governed by the Real Property Actions and Proceedings Law. It establishes the legal framework for when and how an eviction is to occur. The legal term for an eviction is called a summary proceeding and it is designed to grant the landlord possession of the rental unit, a money judgement for unpaid rent, and a warrant of eviction. [Read more…]

April 2015: Business Law

Maintain clear shareholder pacts

Columnist Larry Covell

Columnist Larry Covell

In February’s column, I discussed options of an owner who wants to withdraw from a Limited Liability Company when there is a falling out between any of its members. If the LLC operating agreement has contract language on member withdrawal, the matter is easy since the method has been established. However, when an operating agreement fails to address it, the member who wishes to withdraw faces an uphill legal battle. [Read more…]

February 2015: Business Law

Review LLC operating agreements

Columnist, Larry Covell

Columnist, Larry Covell

As a result of changes in the Limited Liability Company law and a recent court decision, members of LLCs should review their operating agreement to determine if revisions are necessary. [Read more…]

Understand risk of loss to cut costs

Larry Covell

Larry Covell

Shipment of goods by common carrier can be a major part of small business transactions. The goods could be manufactured, inventory for resale, or office equipment. One key concerns that a small business owner should be aware of in shipment of goods is risk of loss.
Many risks are unforeseen such as weather, fire or theft; and the loss may not be covered by the business owner’s insurance policy or if the loss is covered, the policy may be insufficient to cover the entire amount. If the value of the shipped goods is insufficient, there is little impact on business operations. However, if the value of the goods is significant, the loss could seriously impact the survival of the business. [Read more…]

Secure working capital with new tool

Larry Covell

Larry Covell

Working capital for a small business is always in short supply. One option that a small business owner has to raise capital is to enter into a secured transaction. A secured transaction is the use of personal property such as inventory to secure a loan. The personal property is used as collateral for the loan. One popular example of a secured transaction is the use of a loan to buy a motor vehicle. If the owner fails to make the necessary loan payments, the creditor can repossess the motor vehicle and sell it at an auction. [Read more…]

Express warranties certify standards

Larry Covell

Larry Covell

There is one important legal pitfall that small business owners who sell or lease goods should be aware of—the creation of a warranty. A warranty is an assurance that leased or sold goods will perform to a certain standard, are fit for a particular purpose or are fit for their ordinary purpose. Warranties are either express or implied in law.

An express warranty is created by representations of a seller or lessor of goods that they conformed to a certain quality, condition or performance. An express warranty can be created even if there wasn’t an actual intent of the seller or lessor to do so. A small business owner should be careful in their customer relations so that they do not inadvertently do so. An owner may want to examine their advisements and review any written material or statements that they provide to customers. [Read more…]